RICO: causation requirement: to establish that an injury came about “by reason of” a RICO violation, a plaintiff must show that a predicate offense “not only was a ‘but for’ cause of his injury, but was the proximate cause as well.” Holmes v. Securities Investor Protection Corporation, 503 U. S. 258, 268. Proximate cause for RICO purposes should be evaluated in light of its common-law foundations; it thus requires “some direct relation between the injury asserted and the injurious conduct alleged.” Ibid. A link that is “too remote,” “purely contingent,” or “indirect” is insufficient. Id., at 271, 274; as the Court reiterated in Holmes, “the general tendency of the law, in regard to damages at least, is not to go beyond the first step,” id., at 271–272 (U.S.S.Ct., 25.01.10, Hemi Group v. City, C.J. Roberts).