Tuesday, February 19, 2013

Bailey v. U.S.

Warrant: detention incident to the execution of a search warrant: Michigan v. Summers, 452 U. S. 692, detention incident to the execution of a search warrant; the rule in Summers is limited to the immediate vicinity of the premises to be searched and does not apply here, where Bailey was detained at a point beyond any reasonable understanding of the immediate vicinity of the premises in question; in Summers and later cases the detained occupants were found within or immediately outside the residence being searched. Here, however, petitioner left the apartment before the search began and was detained nearly a mile away; even if the detention of a former occupant away from the premises could facilitate a later arrest if incriminating evidence is discovered, “the mere fact that law enforcement may be made more efficient can never by itself justify disregard of the Fourth Amendment.” Mincey v. Arizona, 437 U. S. 385, 393; as recognized in Summers, the detention of a current occupant “represents only an incremental intrusion on personal liberty when the search of a home has been authorized by a valid warrant,” 452 U.S., at 703, but an arrest of an individual away from his home involves an additional level of intrusiveness. A public detention, even if merely incident to a search, will resemble a full-fledged arrest and can involve the indignity of a compelled transfer back to the premises; the decision to detain must be acted upon at the scene of the search and not at a later time in a more remote place (U.S.S.Ct., 19.02.13, Bailey v. U.S., J. Kennedy).

Warrant : détention d'une personne sur la scène du lieu d'exécution de l'ordre de perquisition : une telle détention est admise mais seulement si la personne retenue pendant la perquisition se trouve dans les lieux à perquisitionner ou dans leurs alentours immédiats. Il s'agit d'une garantie découlant du Quatrième Amendement de la Constitution fédérale. La décision de détenir ou non une personne doit être prise sur les lieux et au moment de la perquisition. Ordonner la détention d'une personne au-delà du voisinage direct des lieux à perquisitionner revient à pratiquer une arrestation et n'est pas admissible en tant que détention accessoire à une perquisition.

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